A Pyrrhic Victory.

Volume I,

The Shaping of Destiny.

By Ian Crouch.


I have drawn on both ancient and modern authors and historians to try and create an image of the ancient Mediterranean world as the ancients saw it.

Among the ancient sources are, in alphabetical order:

AESCHYLUS – The Persians. Translated by Philip Vellacott, 1961.

ARISTOPHANES – The Frogs. Trans.David Barrett. 1964.

ARISTOTLE – The Athenian Constitution. Trans. J.Rhodes. 1984.

ARRIAN – The Campaigns of Alexander. Trans.Aubrey de Selincourt. 1958.

HERODOTUS – The Histories. Trans.Aubrey de Selincourt. 1954.

HOMER – The Iliad. Trans. E.V.Rieu. 1950.

HOMER – The Odyssey. Trans. E.V.Rieu. 1946.

LIVY – The History of Rome from its Foundations. Books I – V. Trans.Aubrey de Selincourt. 1960. Books VI – X. Trans.Betty Radice. 1982. Books XI – XXX. Trans. Aubrey de Selincourt. 1965. Books XXXI – XLV. Trans. Henry Bettinson. 1976.

PLATO – The Republic. Trans. Desmond Lee. 1955.

PLUTARCH – Plutarch on Sparta. Trans. Richard Talbert. 1988.

PLUTARCH – The Parallel Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans. The lives of (in chronological order): Solon, Themistocles, Pericles, Alcibiades, Lysander and Flaminius. Trans. Ian Scott Kilvert. 1960. The lives of: Agesilaus, Pelopidas, Timoleon, Demosthenes, Phocion, Alexander, Demetrius and Pyrrhus. Trans. Ian Scott Kilvert. 1973.

POLYBIUS – The Rise of the Roman Empire. Trans. Ian Scott Kilvert. 1979.

QUINTUS CURTIUS RUFUS – The History of Alexander. Trans. John Yardley. 1984.

THUCYDIDES – The History of the Peloponnesian War. Trans. Rex Warner. 1954.

XENOPHON – A History of My Times. Trans. Rex Warner. 1966.

XENOPHON – The Persian Expedition. Trans. Rex Warner. 1949.

The modern sources. These are the historians whom I have come to admire as my teachers. Some of their inspired teaching has made its way into the text.
In particular, I have drawn on their wisdom with regard to Alexander’s goals and ideals, and the interpretation of his influence on the history of the world.
General Fuller provided the great summary regarding Alexander’s legacy, drawing on the contributions of both ancient and modern historians.

BURY AND MEIGGS – A History of Greece. 1975.

MICHAEL CRAWFORD – The Roman Republic. 1992.

GENERAL J.F.C. FULLER – The Decisive Battles of the Western World. 1954.

GENERAL J.F.C FULLER – The Generalship of Alexander the Great. 1960.

JANICE J. GEBBERT – Antigonus Gonatus. 1997.

EDWARD GIBBON – The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Editor: Oliver Smeaton. 1910.

PIERRE JOUGUET – Foreword to: Macedonian Imperialism and the Hellenization of the East. 1928.

J.P.MAHAFFEY – A History of Egypt Under the Macedonian Dynasty. 1899.

DR.W.W.TARN – Alexander the Great and the Unity of Mankind. 1932.

ULRICH WILCKEN – Alexander the Great. 1932.

F.A.WRIGHT – Alexander the Great. 1934.